LIVER CELL TUMORS ARE ALSO REPORTED. MOST OFTEN THESE TUMORS ARE BENIGN AND ANDROGEN-DEPENDENT, BUT FATAL MALIGNANT TUMORS HAVE BEEN REPORTED. WITHDRAWAL OF DRUG OFTEN RESULTS IN REGRESSION OR CESSATION OF PROGRESSION OF THE TUMOR. HOWEVER, HEPATIC TUMORS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGENS OR ANABOLIC STEROIDS ARE MUCH MORE VASCULAR THAN OTHER HEPATIC TUMORS AND MAY BE SILENT UNTIL LIFE-THREATENING INTRA-ABDOMINAL HEMORRHAGE DEVELOPS. BLOOD LIPID CHANGES THAT ARE KNOWN TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS ARE SEEN IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH ANDROGENS OR ANABOLIC STEROIDS. THESE CHANGES INCLUDE DECREASED HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS AND SOMETIMES INCREASED LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. THE CHANGES MAY BE VERY MARKED AND COULD HAVE A SERIOUS IMPACT ON THE RISK OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE.
Lactones contribute significantly to the flavor of fruit, and of unfermented and fermented dairy products,  and are therefore used as flavors and fragrances.  Some examples are γ-decalactone (4-decanolide), which has a characteristic peach flavor;  δ-decalactone (5-decanolide), which has a creamy coconut/peach flavour; γ-dodecalactone (4-dodecanolide), which also has a coconut/fruity flavor,  a description which also fits γ-octalactone (4-octanolide),  although it also has a herbaceous character;  γ-nonalactone , which has an intense coconut flavor of this series, despite not occurring in coconut,  and γ-undecalactone .
AI’s are also sometimes used during PCT because of their ability to stimulate LH and FSH. However, they also lower estrogen levels and often too much during this phase. Part of the PCT plan is to allow the body to normalize and part of that is maintaining normal estrogen levels. Estrogen is not an evil hormone many men, especially steroid users often believe it is. Estrogen is extremely important for muscle building, sexual health, mental health and a host of other areas. Estrogen levels that are too high or too low, both can be very problematic.